Sift in the flour and rub in the butter to make the bread dough. Stir the salt and dried Parmesan. Add the egg and 1 tablespoon of the water and mix with a round-bladed knife. Add more water if necessary to make a soft dough. Cover the dough with plastic wrap and chill for 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, heat the oil in a skillet and cook the garlic and onions for about 5 minutes or until golden. Add the tomatoes and cook for 8-10 minutes. Stir in the tomato paste.
Roll out the dough to fit a 9-inch loose-based fluted flan pan. Cover with foil and bake in a preheated oven, at 400°f, for 10 minutes or until just set. Remove the foil and bake for another 5 minutes until lightly golden. Leave to cool slightly.
Spoon the tomato sauce over the pastry base and top with the peppers, thyme, olives, and fresh Parmesan. Return to the oven for 15 minutes or until pastry is crisp. Serve warm or cold.
PREPRATION TIME: 2 hours, 25 minutes
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